Tag Archives: Religion

Lesbians in India

AR and NH (Lesbians) India [2016] UKUT 66 (IAC) is a decision of the British Upper Tribunal (Immigration and Asylum Chamber) and the findings made can be summarised as: (1) The guidance in MD (same-sex oriented males) India CG [2014] UKUT 65 (IAC) stands. The guidance at (a) – (f) in MD (India) applies equally to lesbians. (2) A risk of persecution or serious harm for a lesbian woman in India, where it exists, arises from her family members, and the extent of such risk, and whether it extends beyond the home area, is a question of fact in each case. (3) The risk of persecution or serious harm is higher for uneducated lower class lesbian women in rural areas, who remain under the control of their family members and may not be permitted to leave the home to continue meeting their lesbian partners. (4) Where family members are hostile to a lesbian woman’s sexuality, they may reject her completely and sometimes formally renounce her as a member of that family. In such a case, whether relocation to a city is unduly harsh will be a question of fact, depending on the ability of such a lesbian woman to survive economically away from her family and social networks. (5) If a lesbian woman’s family Continue reading

Fighting to the End: The Pakistan Army’s Way of War

Pakistan’s army has dominated the state for most of its 66 years. It has locked the country in an enduring rivalry with India to revise the maps in Kashmir and to resist India’s slow but inevitable rise. To prosecute these dangerous policies, the army employs non-state actors under the security of its ever-expanding nuclear umbrella. The Pakistan army started three wars with India over Kashmir in 1947, 1965, and 1999 and failed to win any of them. It has sustained a proxy war in Kashmir since 1989 using Islamist militants, some of whom have now turned their guns against the Pakistani state. The Pakistan army has supported non-Islamist insurgencies throughout India as well as a country-wide Islamist terror campaign Continue reading

Bharatiya Janata Party and the Indian Muslims

The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) is perceived as a communal party that aims to eliminate the secular character of the Indian state in which Indian-Muslims coexist. The Hindus and Indian-Muslims are often projected as absolute identities. The present study argues that a number of identities-communitarian, caste, and regional-exist in India and compete to preserve their respective traditions. The BJP as the proponent of Hindutva and the Muslims as the advocates of Islam-Urdu are struggling to protect their respective values system and traditions. Both identities have deep historical roots that were formed during the British Raj. The author has studied the BJP-Muslim interaction in three distinct phases: (i) the Raj era (ii) the post-Independence Congress-dominated era and (iii) the post-Congress-dominated BJP era. Continue reading